Culture has huge impact on inclusive development and social inclusion of diverse social groups. As stated in UNESCO Universal Declaration of Cultural Diversity, "culture takes diverse forms across time and space. This diversity is embodied in the uniqueness and plurality of the identities of the groups and societies making up humankind. As a source of exchange, innovation and creativity, cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature. In this sense, it is the common heritage of humanity and should be recognized and affirmed for the benefit of present and future generations (...) Cultural diversity widens the range of options open to everyone; it is one of the roots of development, understood not simply in terms of economic growth, but also as a means to achieve a more satisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence” (UNESCO, 2002).

UNESCO, 2002. Universal Declaration of Cultural Diversity

Indicators

Indicator definition

Frequency of participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months.

% of persons above 16 who participated in cultural activities (cinema, live performances, or cultural sites) at least 4 times in the last 12 months. The value for Serbia for 2015 is available at EUROSTAT, calculated from EU SILC.

Source

Eurostat, EU SILC; for 3: Data for EU are from Eurostat, LFS, data for Serbia are from Statistical Office of Serbia, LFS; 4. Data for EU are from Eurostat, data for Serbia are from Statistical Office of Serbia
Data explanation

The rate of cultural participation in Serbia is much lower than in EU28 and similar to that in Romania and Bulgaria. The rate is a bit lower only in Macedonia. The low participation rate means that culture could be used as social inclusion tool to a limited extent. The same stands for practicing of artistic activities, only the distance from EU28 average is smaller.

Indicator definition

Frequency of participation in artistic activities in the last 12 months.

This is the % of persons who practiced artistic activities at least once in the last 12 months. Value also calculated from EU SILC and available at EUROSTAT.

Source

Eurostat, EU SILC
Data explanation

The rate of cultural participation in Serbia is much lower than in EU28 and similar to that in Romania and Bulgaria. The rate is a bit lower only in Macedonia. The low participation rate means that culture could be used as social inclusion tool to a limited extent. The same stands for practicing of artistic activities, only the distance from EU28 average is smaller.

Indicator definition

Cultural employment is the % of persons who either have a cultural profession, or work in an economic unit of the cultural sector

The value has been calculated from the Labor Force Survey. Data for EU countries are available at EUROSTAT. In Serbia, the value has also been calculated through LFS, but statistical definition is a bit different.

Consequently, it does not allow comparison with EU countries, but allows comparison in time.

Year :


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Source

Data for EU are from Eurostat, LFS, data for Serbia are from Statistical Office of Serbia, LFS
Indicator definition

Government expenditure on culture is general government expenditure on 'recreation, culture and religion’ by function (COFOG), per inhabitant

The expenditure on religious and community services /population calculated from national ESA (European system of accounts) reports. Like with the cultural employment indicator, statistical definition in Serbia is a bit different: The budgetary means users’ expenditure on arts, entertainment and recreation (gambling and betting excluded), per inhabitant. The data could be obtained from Statistical Yearbook.

Year :


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Source

Data for EU are from Eurostat, data for Serbia are from Statistical Office of Serbia
Data explanation

While the government expenditure on culture has been constantly low for years in Serbia, the cultural employment has slightly increased in 2015 as compared to several previous years and is getting back to 2007 value. Concerning that this value is also quite low, this adds to the previous conclusion that cultural sector in Serbia is lacking resources to play more important role in inclusive development.